Electrification of transportation is a prerequisite to achieving greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets and sustainability goals established under the Paris agreement on climate change and the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change. Canada’s commitment is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 30% below 2005 levels, by 2030.
To accommodate and encourage electric vehicles (EVs) adoption, extensive charging infrastructure installation is necessary. Electric vehicle power requirements are significant. In simplest terms, the objective represents replacing energy consumed by internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with electricity sourced from building electrical systems and utility grids. Such a transformation represents a considerable challenge, as building electrical systems and utility grids were not designed to accommodate the magnitude and acceleration of electrical load increases.
Existing buildings have a fixed capacity in accordance with design requirements at the time of construction, which do not include support for EV charging. The majority of existing buildings have insufficient capacity to accommodate the electrical load of uncontrolled EV charging.
Electric vehicle energy management systems (EVEMS) represent an opportunity to maximize usage efficiency of existing electrical infrastructure and avoid prohibitive costs inherent with capacity upgrades.
EVEMS technologies are in relative infancy, having only been recognized in the 2018 edition of the Canadian Electrical Code (CSA C22.1-18, Canadian Electrical Code, Part I; 24th Edition). A significant barrier to adoption of these technologies is the absence of a relevant product (Canadian Electrical Code, Part II) standard in Canada. Without a product standard, there exists no basis for testing and certification. Subsequently, no products are certified for use in Canada. A number of electrical safety authorities have developed variance processes to permit installation of a small number of products. However, these efforts represent an interim measure until a product standard is developed and testing and certification laboratories have a basis for certification.
The following report provides details of EVEMS configurations and control schemes with particular attention on time allocation and power allocation with noted advantages and disadvantages in support of the subsequent development of a product standard.
In conclusion, the three variations of load management with monitoring are the schemes that achieve greatest utilization efficiency of electrical infrastructure, and following logical conclusions, provide the most probable longterm solution for EV charging.